In the new kingdom of Egypt, Thebes was new capital and it included temples which represented the architecture of new kingdom. Especially, Karnak and Luxor temple have new spatial conditions, in these structures, they used formal axis and they also used a structural agent which is gigantic columns, colossal statues, and pyrons. Hypostyle hall was the new theme of the architecture in this period, the hypostyle hall is a space with a roof supported roof by columns, it is like a forest of columns and the center of the hall taller than the spaces on either side, it provides playing the light. (a section of wall that allowed light and air into the otherwise dark space below). Thebes grew like a long strip on both banks of Nile. There was two types sanctuary , on the west bank is a mortuary temple and on the east bank , this temple is for living God.
Thebes grew like a long strip on both banks of Nile. There was two types sanctuary , on the west bank is a mortuary temple and on the east bank , this temple is for living God. Temples are actually complex like Mesopotamian ziggurat, they include kitchens, large priesthood, workshops, boats.Then houses are row and they lined streets, all of the houses had a small court and shaded portico, hall served as the main living space and living room higher than the side rooms for allowing from light.At the rear, there was a kitchen with independent staircase and above of staircase, there were second-story bedroom and terrace above. Thebes house different from Mesopotamian cities houses because Thebes houses have extroverted street architecture. Houses facades consist Egypt culture paintings.Generally, they used the material of mud and expandable materials in houses and palaces but in temples, they used solid limestone so they splendid ruins because of materials.
The temple to Amon-Ra at Karnak occupies a site as large as a city. It has a similar approach with other temples, Karnak presented a sequence of the central axis through a colonnaded entry court -hypostyle halls- Unlike pyramids coordinate, axes of Karnak skewed to follow the changing course of the Nile.Temple Karnak had two axes south and north.This axis continues towards the temple of Luxor. In addition, pylons position were above the door this created strong axis through the Nile.
During the reign of the Pharaohs, each Pharaoh have their own architects so all architects have different approach and effects the temples. Especially, queen Hatshepsut used architecture to bolster her rule, she built five major temples.