Gupta India

First to eighth century, builders in Indian carved into stone cliffs for temple or making an art subtraction. Indian structures and temples  relied on what nature provided so these are less permanent structure. Then, they inspired the great cave monasteries, single mass rock-cut temple became a trend, they also inspired from pyramids over small sanctuaries in first masonry temple.

After Christianity was embraced monotheism by Romans, India religious beliefs such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism are multiplied. Especially Buddhism affected produced the earliest architectural prototypes, later reworked for Hindu and Jain buildings. Bhaja caves include clearly the crossover that made from wood so wooden architecture tradition continued into the stone hall. Almost like freestanding buildings, the temples give an idea that became extinct  wooden structures, finished with reeds and mud. At the end of the axis of the Bhaja hall stupa rests on a cylindrical pedestal. The Bhaja plan bear similar to Early Christian basilicas, with a wide nave flanked by side ambulatories. The Indian hall had the same ritual function: people circulated around the perimeter of the colonnade as a form of devotion to the object or concept marked by a stupa. At Karli, screen door and windows are included combination stone with wooden details. Also in Karli same carving techniques used in the production of the freestanding temples. The Gupta dynasty left most architectural patronage to the high-ranking members of the court. The palaces had open verandahs defined by wooden columns in pot-shaped bases. In the scenes, horizontally placed barrel vaults or shalas, capped the city gates. Their gables had pointed horseshoe arches which apparently preceded the use of arches in Islamic and Christian buildings. The great mandapa hall columns were set increasingly widening rows of two, four and six so it defined a diamond pattern in the plan.

Most of Mahabalipuram temples were built by carving single stones  but they looked like made from pieces, like the structural wooden tradition. Pandava was first structure made from durable material in this region. Two pyramids shared common terrace and tey stood in a bounded parkara, subdivided into terraces with sculpted bulls lining parapets. The Kailasanatha temple demonstrated the transformation from cave to freestanding masonry architecture. The Buddhist hall type and design solutions carried over into traditions of the ensuing religious expression. Similarly, Gupta rock-cut architecture influence most next religious buildings in India.


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