Western Europe After the Roman Empire

Between fifty century and millennium, there was a chaotic atmosphere in Europe, Roman citizen underwent attack, famines, economic problems, and plagues. Because of international trade, the population got smaller day to day. Feudal system separated society into those fought, those who prayed, and the great who toiled. Monasteries of Christianity lived in the feudal system in a way that most inspired expression. After the millennium, economic and cultural  advancement promoted the journeys of Christian pilgrims. Then with a pretext that protection of pilgrims, they prepared military power for taking Jerusalem from Muslims. This contact between Muslims stimulated Europen cities. These periods constructions such as grand churches, monasteries, and hospitals showed the optimistic architecture expression of social order.

Charlemagne: The Revival of the Roman Empire and the Role of Monasteries 

Charmagne inspired from few furious architectural patronage of Roman Empire of Constantine so the unity and greatness of Roman architecture continued. He built an itinerant courtyard aside from numerous imperial palace and cathedrals and monasteries. He relied on the support of  monastic settlement like Khmer rulers. Charmange’s palace resumed a key project in his far-flung efforts to revive the Roman Empire. Its architect taken generously from Byzantine works in Ravenna. Their organization similar and also inspired from the imperial palace of Constantine. Its viaduct that passes through the gate is a connection between palace and Hagia Sophia. The Palatine Chapel before the additions was the only piece of the imperial complex. It constructed a stiff approximation of the two-storied octagon supporting a dome and a drum. Contrary to brick, it constructed completely in stone and also its interior space darker than Ravella one. Because of Chapel’s distance in time and space from Roman and Byzantine  source the marble columns, a structural and grammatical logic of arches and columns are conducted. The alternation of black and white voussoirs similarly ablaq in Great Mosque of Cordoba was seen the first time in Christine architecture. Above the main entry, Aachen rose two towers, especially in later time, these type of twin-towered facade became a Westword. Only Carolingian example intact expected the twin towers on the facades of most of the great cathedrals between the eleventh and fourteen centuries. Some of Charlemagne’s court produced different type ‘ the double-ender church’. Some types of Carolingian west works may influence from the chapel at Aachen. Chapel at Aachen displays to rich samples of Carolingion assimilation of ancient type. Also at the gate which has triumphal arch are the local assimilation famous Roman precedent. The rounded staircase turret on either side and the spacious hall have no paralel in Roman triumphal arches but relate to the ancient city gate. When the Italian and Barbarian motif mixed , they enriched and contradicted the classical Roman type and historian called this period ‘Romanesque’. The plan of St. Gall that was a remarkable graphic document of ideal one explained form and the social order of Benedictine monastery. When designer plotted the plan they used the grid that was module subdivided into sixteen units. The church dominated the plan with a double enter three-aisle plan, proposing two freestanding towers for the westwork. It placed the north so it could not block the sunlight to major buildings. In complex, majority building apart from church made from wood which explains why so little remains of these early monasteries. Between tenth and twelve century, monastic institution got exceptional power and authority in Europe.

It will be continued…

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