Humanist Italy

The Italian Renaissance remained the Greco-Roman antiquity in art and architecture so this idea integrated with Italian soil. Humanism is a belief that influenced Italia The Greeks and Roman practiced. The humanists rethink the city’s role of the human culture and offering a suggestion for humanity cities. They adopted the new architectural style including symmetry, correct proportion and classical columns. Renaissance became the attractive issue in Florence between fourth century and fifty century. Leaders provided education for young people from Greek and Latin sources of history, science and philosophy so they grown as humanists. The humanism outcomes for arts and architecture are copying antiquity with taking principles of design and architecture pursued harmonious proportions based on the classicism. Consequently, humanism and its influenced structures altered characters of Italian cities in terms of scale and geometric basis also, humanism did not change only aesthetic agenda of cities, it implied the restoration of an ideal of social and political order.

Flippo Brunelleschi ‘ The Architect of Domes’

In the fourteenth century, the wealthiest families from the merchant guilds governed the artistic output of Florence. Because of heavier taxes, they channeled their collective source into the civic projects and public spaces such as Palazzo Vecchio, Santa Maria del Flore and the city walls. Their aims to manage public works of the city are improving the corporate status through the grandeur of civic architecture. In most public space, rounded arches, symmetrically placed bays and harmonies proportions are used. The perceptive vision has added the principal of public spaces such as in L-shaped Piazza Della Signoria. Its enlarged space allowed one to view the formidable view of city’s public palace and bell tower relationship with surroundings. Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore introduced a simple Gothic style with ripped vaults spanning the nave and two side aisles. Francesco Talenti as the domes of Pisa and Sienna extended the length of nave and outline area with the huge orthogonal dome over the crossing. The commute charged a committee to set the dimension cupola as wide as Parthenon in Rome and almost twice its height. This structural system of the Fioravanti reproduced from Baptistery  of San Giovanni. Its unprecedented size caused some logical problems of the building. Flippo Brunelleschi that is talent in the art of construction work on the solutions for the dome with his rivals.  Then the architect worked on new dome without any problems. The lattice is a two-tiered structure with wall techniques and a torn skeleton surrounded by nine horizontal supports hidden between two floors. When he protected the pointed arches and the ribbons from the gothic program he had created several generations ago, he added various motifs to the outdoors. Also flanked by pairs of Corinthian half columns, these columns were rare in antiquity. The great cupola is filled with innovations in the Gothic structure, showing the new elements of the revival of the ancient Roman style. In the founding Hospital, he used long halls and courtyards set the behind a public loggia, the facade had a distinct classical appearance with Corinthians columns from ancient attitude and pilasters. Piazza Santissima Annunziata is most graceful formally controlled public space. The dome of the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo rose from the cubic volume on pendentives, assuming the shape of a hemispherical umbrella divided by twelve round-arch ribs. Corinthian pilasters and a classically proportioned entablature framed the altar niche, and an arch rose over the middle bay, forming a stylized version of a triumphal arch. Like the Old Sacristy, the Pazzi Chapel has a curious flaw where the pilasters meet the corners. Brunelleschi has provided a rationale for clarity and bright sense of sanctuary and San Lorenzo in Florence has put environmental quest.

The Florentine Palazzo And Leon Battista Alberti

San Lorenza’s patrons and other religious institutions rebuilt his family palace so it is the reproducing the Florentine palazzo type for next generations.Cosimo was the another humanist patron and he wanted to residence like an ancient Roman domus than an urban castle. Their classical cornice, dentils, motifs, and brackets are taken from the Roman Forum. It is perfectly square courtyard emulated atrium of a domus. Palazzo Medici was inspirational for the next most palaces about its the plan organization. The Palazzo Medici, the particle in the center, looked like a huge cube corresponding to the courtyard.
The main façade overlooks Via Larga: from the protruding rustic of the floor, the upper floor has smooth, compact flooring stones, with a graded stone surface crowned with a monumental protruding cornice with classic motifs. Therefore, the Florentine palace type began to consist in a stone bench, a rusticated base, regularly placed biforium windows, a classical cornice and an arcaded courtyard. The Palazzo Rucellai courtyard forms a triangular square in front of the palace, which allows this courtyard to be watched with one view perspective of the facade. Alberti’s concern about balance and proportions is evident in the symmetrical handling of the palace ceiling. The use of three classic orders to express the above progression was inspired by the Colosseum in Rome. Palazzo Rucellai later influenced Palazzo Della Cancelleria (later the Papal Chancellor in Rome). Alberti after designed Rucellai designed two other works, a mausoleum inspired by Holy Sepulchre and the facade of Santa Maria Novella. Holy Sepulchre is a rectangular, rounded apse rectangle freestanding marble, at one end, which is better proportional to the original Jerusalem. Alberti’s antiquity to the ancient Etruscan temples brought with it an unusual central plan for the church. Renaissance created a standard for patrons and architects. Rather than copying the past, he suggested that the animating of the ancient architecture be followed by a consistent sequence of rules to create something new about the grandeur of the antique age. According to the theory, beauty is due to the proper use of symmetry and proportionality, so the design of buildings was just as reasonable as the organism produced by nature.

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