One of the essential aims of Ottoman is capturing Constantinople and became an Islamic Roman Empire. In this period, byzantine architectural approach and art affected diversely Damascus, Kiev, Venice, and Cordoba. Finally, in 1453 Ottoman achieved to capture Constantinople by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Fatih changed city’s name to İstanbul. For the diffrent ethnic group of Istanbul governed by their own laws. Also for encouraging merchant activity, he was built Kapalı Çarşı (markets) as Seljuk approach in Koza Han consisted of square bays capped with rounded. Fatih absorbed technical and cultural innovations from Italy, especially fortifications of the new city showed inspiration from Italy. Rumeli Hisar fortification are constructed on the Bosporus to intercept Christian naval support to the Byzantines and Yedikule fortification is star-shaped. He transformed Hagia Sophia the Palantine church into the royal mosque with minarets and changing the main axis. After that, he has constructed Fatih Cami inspired from the great Byzantine church. This new mosque is rival with Hagia Sophia in terms of the grand hemispherical dome that is less than few meters diameter than Hagia Sophia. Small cupolas topped each bay of the court’s arcades, and ancient granite columns supported pointed arches. He also was built an octagonal tube for him and the mother of his heir. Fatih wanted to add new palace in extreme tip of peninsula instead of an old palace in the center of the city. New palace called Topkapi Sarayi appeared the antithesis of European palaces asymmetrical and more like a garden than buildings. The important parts of palaces are the diwan and harem. Diwan used for official meetings and it comprised three domed halls, skirted by an unassuming L-shaped portico.
Sinan and the Challenge of Hagia Sophia
Sinan is an excellent architect of Ottoman period he is known as Mimar Sinan and builder of the major mosque of Ottomans. He witnessed various design solutions and earned the right engineering desire with the production of bridges and shipping boats.
The Haseki Hürrem complex– Sinan covered the mosque with a single hemispheric dome, Sinan designed the hospital, an institution specifically for women, with an extraordinary octagonal court.
The Mirümah Cami– It included one of the impressive domes of Sinan and as a gothic structural idea, Sinan wanted to eliminate the weight of bearing walls, allowing great expanses of fenestration under the four paraboloid supporting arches.
Şehzade Cami– Sinan abutted the central dome with four semiopen domes inspired by Hagia Sophia.The pyramidal massifs of the central dome are covered by a semicolon, four cottage towers, a dome, and there are four small domes in the corner. This square is staggered in the same perfect square courtyard in the area of the mosque.
Süleymaniye– Sinan continued the inspiration of Hagia Sophia and he nearly caught large of the central dome as Byzantine churches. Like the Gothic, they acted as counterweight on four piers carrying the important loads of the dome.In its elevation punctured by three rows of windows like Mihrümah Cami. The unified space of the mosque exuded an optimistic sense of light and openness.