In the seventeenth century, Spain and France became a dominant power in Europe but architectural approach still continued to come from Italy. The Roman Catholic Church remained in the center of the cult of France, Italy and Spain, and in 1563 the Counter-Reformation started. The reformation activities included new religious order, the training of missionaries, new bureaucratically run parish structures, an increase of ritual and sacraments, and construction of numerous religious colleges and churches. Catholicism advanced a showy procedure for religion to empower the eagerness of the loyal, which supported the colossal urban set pieces composed in Rome by Bernini and his partners.
Philip II moved the capital to Valladolid and moved to Madrid, where he could be free from feudal politics in the past. like his dad, the new ruler supported the traditional style of mid-sixteenth century Rome and requested a Spanish interpretation of Serlio’s treatise. He built up his most prominent design extend, the religious community of San Lorenzo at Escorial. Juan Bautista de Toledo, who had worked with Michelangelo on the arrangements for the arch of St. Peter’s, was the modeler; after his demise Juan de Herrera proceeded with the venture. He designed the convent’s gridded plan and these convent area covered roughly the equivalent of the Süleymaniye. They were built from solid granite blocks, a type of stone that was difficult to detail in fine detail, and they left an impression of an imposing splendor when the pavements barely peeled off. The rooftops of the towers are leaning up with the slate-covered pyramids. The rooftops are adorned with folds made by Flemish carpenters in Burgundian style. This type of roof was a sign of the Habsburg dynasty projects in Spain and an abandonment of the unfortunate claims of northern Europe. He proposed the estilo desornamentado (the undecorated style). He trusted that the utilization of right elegance in design empowered right states of mind in both religion and government.Juan de Herrera, and after him Francisco de Mora and his nephew Juan Gomez de Mora, brought a similar sense of order and minimal decoration to numerous royal and municipal projects. Philip II launches Madrid’s most important public project called Plaza Mayor and its proportions of 2: 3 used for the plaza in Valladolid were a model for the ideal square in the Spanish colonial towns. Like the sahn of a mosque, Plaza Mayor appeared internally consistent, rationally placed on the cardinal axes but did not relate to the alignments of existing streets running into it.
The Paris of Henri IV: Pieces of Urban Order
During most of the second half of the 16th century, France was torn by common wars amongst Protestants and Catholics. At long last, Henri IV, a declared Protestant, changed over to Catholicism in light of a legitimate concern for national solidarity. During his reign, France became increasingly centralized and surpassed Spain in political and economic importance. Henri IV’s initiated a renewal program for Paris including rebuilt the Louvre enlarged the long gallery that ran to the Tuileries, sponsored the Pont Neuf and founded a major plague hospital. Henri IV’s distinctive functionality over the style: The Place Royale (now known as the Place des Vosges) began as a commercial project associated with the silk factories in 1604. It has become a stage for royal ceremonies and tournaments, but has offered itself as a secular place for residences without a monumental focus. Henri IV’s widow continued to his architectural agenda and commissioned the Luxembourg Palace on the western edge of the city. Cardinal Richelieu has built a great palace for himself, now the Palais Royal is next to the Louvre.The Catholic Church was promoted as a state religion that led to the establishment of more than 70 new religious institutions in Paris during the 17th century. Most of the new church structures looked at the classic Renaissance Roman style.It is the gateway to the late Gothic church of Étienne-du-Mont.The reconstruction of the University of Paris (Sorbonne) remained in the main architectural heritage of the Cardinal Richelieu. Construction also included a church for the cardinal tomb. The church of Sorbonne launched the first hemispherical dome on the Parisian skyline. While gothic vaults and crocket-laden spires signified the highest expression of religious architecture but new churches marked with classical columns and rounded domes, confirmed the models of papal Rome and the Counter-Reformation as the new source of the architectural authority.